Cultural and political events during these centuries increased attention to women's issues such as education reform, and by the end of the eighteenth century, women were increasingly able to speak out against injustices.
National Portrait Gallery, London Evelyn wrote, "pictures are very common here [in the Netherlands], there being scarce an ordinary tradesman whose house is not decorated with them.
In the middle of the seventeenth century some Dutch homes had thirty to fifty paintings per room, rooms which, it should be noted, were not all that spacious.
The idea that the Netherlands abounded with good painting "must have become commonplace at the time. Quite likely a proud awareness of this phenomenon was already imbedded in the self-image of the prosperous Dutch burgher. While Mundy's and Evelyn's comments were likely based on fact, it is important to note that the pictures they mentioned varied greatly in quality and price.
A cheap engraving, for example, could be had for about a third of the price of a small fish or flower still life painting—and for about a seventh of the price of a more elaborate, high-finish banketje still life. On the other hand, a cutting-edge fijnschilder fine painting work of Gerrit Dou might be sold for 1, guilders or more, the cost of a comfortable Dutch house.
Camphuyzen…was roused because the art of painting was so well-liked that one could say nothing against it: In the works of most artists both style and content reflected taste not of the wealthy and sophisticated, but of people in moderate circumstances.
For this, international fashion could be largely ignored. This allowed the full development of native artistic species. What, if any, effect did the unprecedented availability of artworks to a broad range of the population have on the perception of art itself?
Though art had not degenerated into an overlooked object of utility, the differentiation between paintings and other objects was somehow weakened. Unlike their colleagues from the south where history painting had originated, Dutch painters no longer encumbered by theoretical obligations of morally uplifting contents or divine spirituality.
And perhaps, this unassuming character of Dutch art, Rather than assuming the traditional guise of the learned gentleman artist that was fostered by Renaissance topoi, many painters presented themselves in a more unseemly light.
Dropping the noble robes of the pictor doctus, they smoked, drank and chased women. Dutch and Flemish artists explored a new mode of self-expression in dissolute self-portraits, embracing the many behaviors that art theorists and the culture at large disparaged.
Dissolute self-portraits stand apart from what was expected of a conventional self-portrait, yet they were nonetheless appreciated and valued in Dutch culture and in the art market. Dissolute self-portraits also reflect and respond to a larger trend regarding artistic identity in the seventeenth century, notably, the stereotype "hoe schilder hoe wilder" [the more of a painter, the wilder he is] that posited Dutch and Flemish artists as intrinsically unruly characters prone to prodigality and dissolution.
Artists embraced this special identity, which in turn granted them certain freedoms from social norms and a license to misbehave. After the iconoclasm of the Calvinists in the s, the church had all but ceased to provide commissions for painters.
The Reformed Church allowed money to be spent only for the decoration of church organs. The vacuum was barely noticed: Portraits, landscapes, seascapes, still-lives, flower painting and genre themes, which had once existed primarily as descriptive elements within history painting, became independent motifs in the early sixteenth century.
In the need to keep step with the rapidly evolving market, some painters developed more efficient techniques to increase their output and maintain affordable prices for a broader consumer base.
The invention of tonal painting made the new landscapes [e. Jan van GoyenJan Porcellis ], which were painted in this style, much cheaper to produce, making secularized demand for non-religious subjects possible on a grand scale.
Yet, "there is no evidence that these patrons commissioned specific themes. They merely bought the right to buy any picture the master chose to make.
In any case, producing such expensive, time-consuming paintings had the advantage that the upper economic crust who could afford them remained largely isolated from the effects of by economic downturns, in fact, their wealth often increased. Each category of painting was subdivided into even more specific categories.
Seventeenth-century Netherlanders had developed a particular a passion for depictions of city and countryside, either real or imaginary unfound in other parts of Europe.By , Dutch, Flemish, German, and French specialties had become less clearly distinguishable, with Dutch painters working for foreign princes and the market for still lifes growing throughout Europe.
The French painters Jean Siméon Chardin and Jean-Baptiste Oudry are among the many eighteenth-century heirs to the Netherlandish tradition. Vanitas paintings were very popular in 17th century Flemish and Dutch work, and they often depict symbols such as skulls, flowers, rotting fruit, clocks, watches, smoke, and hourglasses, all of which are meant to convey the ephemeral nature of life on earth.
Dutch art, of course, is but one component of the story of the National Gallery of Art, but it is an important one. The historical connection between the Dutch and the Americans that so inspired turn-of-the-century collectors remains true and valid today, but the associations are now more nuanced than they were in .
Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (–) for Dutch independence.
• Rembrandt and Vermeer are famous Dutch painters who paint businessman and common people Dutch Trading Empire • The 17th century is period of great upheaval • Monarchs impose order by increasing their • Descartes uses observation and reason .
Dutch painters of the seventeenth century, along with faience-makers, printers, bookbinders, glassmakers, embroiderers, art-dealers, sculptors were bound together in local trade organizations called the Guild of Saint Luke.