LSP can be internal or external, overt or disguised, and related in different ways to national policy.
It was defined ordinarily as the ability to speak or to communicate using three or more languages McArthur, The benefits of being multilingual exhibit over monolinguals and not restricted to linguistic knowledge only but extend outside the area of language.
The substantial long-lived cognitive, social, personal, academic, and professional benefits of enrichment multilingual context have been well documented Cummins, The advantages of multilingual inspired the United Nation UN to take into conscious account of the multilingual existence by carrying out the contest of essay writing on multilingual in six official languages of the United Nations: Indonesia is a multilingualism society which consisted of languages in this country Crystal, It means that Indonesian has 23 million native speakers and million second language speakers who speak it alongside their local language or mother tongue.
It is used extensively as a first language by Indonesian citizen in urban areas and as a second language by those residing in more rural parts of Indonesia. Beside those languages, the Indonesian educational policy permitted some foreign languages which can be taught at secondary school up to university level, they are; English, Arabic, German, Mandarin, etc.
Unfortunately, the program was unsuccessful caused of the lack of the readiness of the school and also students-teachers competence in mastering English Mariati, While there were many schools managed by the social foundation in Indonesia including Pesantrens. Pesantren or Islamic boarding school is an educational institution that has its roots to the Hinduism-Islamic educational system which was founded by Ki Hajar Dewantara as the indigenous education system of Indonesia since Yasmadi, Nowadays, there are Direktori Pondok Pesantren, Those Pesantrens have been chosen as research subjects by the consideration that these schools have very interesting linguistic tradition.
Where there were two intensive foreign languages have been taught at the schools, namely Arabic and English. Besides, the students generally come from various tribes in the eastern of Indonesia with different ethnicity and languages and also came from other provinces in Indonesia, namely Bugis, Makassar, Mandar, Palu, Kendari, Gorontalo, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua and Java that made Pesantren became multilingualism community.
Based on preliminary observation at these Pesantrens, there was an interesting problem of diglossia phenomenon that is how the pattern of language selection is accordance to the function at the school.
In daily language use, students are generally exposed to use variety of patterns in language activities: The choice of language is of course depended on several factors such as the participants, interlocutors, the atmosphere, topics, and teachers who have ability to speak in English and Arabic.
Unfortunately, most of languages material that have been tough at Pesantren still focused on grammar and written language that hindered the students to speak and to communicate smoothly in term of fluency, accuracy, and comprehensibility.
The three curriculums were implemented separately in certain day, different schedule, and different teachers. Likewise in language curriculum of Pesantren, the students were compelled to learn hard in fulfillment the need of the curriculum.
It means that the students were dazed to learn languages such as Indonesia, Arabic, English, and local languages based on the three curriculums in different schedule with different teacher and different book. The schools also faced some obstacles in arranging the schedule and needed more teachers to teach those languages whereas most of its teachers have multilingual competence to be empowered to fulfill the need of Pesantrens.
Some previous studies involved to Pesantren still only focused on languages teaching and learning Melor, et al, Despite Indonesia is a multilingualism country, Multilingual education is still a new issue that must be examined in-depth to explore many sites contributed to multilingual education.
This kind of research method called multimethod, multisite, or large-scale research Johnson, Problem Statement Based on the problem identifications on the background above, the researcher formulates the problem statement as follow: How do the languages curriculums apply in Pesantrens?
How do the languages teaching and learning method implement in Pesantrens? How do the students and teachers of Pesantrens develop their multilingual competence?
What is the attitude of students and teachers of Pesantrens toward multilingual education? What do the students, teachers, and stake holder of Pesantrens need to develop multilingual competence? The Objective of the Research In relation to the problem statements above, the objectives of the research are: To know the kind of languages curriculum apply in Pesantrens.
To explore the languages teaching and learning method implement in Pesantrens. To know the way of students and teachers of Pesantrens develop their multilingual competence.
To know the attitude of students and teachers of Pesantrens toward multilingual education.View and download online education essays examples. Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your online education essay.
La Llorona (The Wailing Woman) is a self-published anthology of short fiction, essay, and poetry about the legend of the 'Wailing' (or weeping) Woman of Mexican lore. Garcia is a certified elementary and bilingual teacher (Texas),with a master's in English from Texas A&M International University.
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