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The Colosseum in Rome, built c. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD. Romea settlement around a ford on the river Tiber conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for a period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.
The tradition handed down seven kings: In BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic. In the wake of Julius Caesar 's rise and death in the first century B. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustusbegan a golden age of peace and prosperity.
The Italian Peninsula was named Italia and, as the territory of the city of Rome, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces ".
At its height under Trajanit covered 5 million square kilometres. The Western Empireunder the pressure of the barbarian invasionseventually dissolved in AD, when its last Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacerwhile the Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years.
After the fall of the Western Roman EmpireItaly fell under the power of Odoacer's kingdomand, later, was seized by the Ostrogoths followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest under Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The invasion of another Germanic tribethe Lombardslate in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years.
The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.
Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy Seelocal communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order. In a league of city-states, the Lombard Leaguedefeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnanothus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.
Flag of the Italian Navydisplaying the coat of arms of the most prominent maritime republics: VeniceGenoaPisa and Amalfi In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient.
They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire.
All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracythe relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.
Venice and Genoa were Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewellery. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned.
The republics were heavily involved in the Crusadesproviding support but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.
In Sardiniathe former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Giudicatialthough some parts of the island became controlled by Genoa or Pisa until the Aragonese annexation in the 15th century.
The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. Early Modern Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in The European Union is an integration of European states that encompasses different histories, institutions, political systems and economies.
At present the EU boasts 27 member countries with a combined population of over million.
The European University Institute (EUI) is a unique international centre for doctorate and post-doctorate studies and research, situated in the Tuscan hills overlooking Florence. In Nations Divided, Don H.
Doyle looks at some unexpected parallels in American and Italian alphabetnyc.com we learn will reattune us to the complexities and ironies of nationalism. During his travels around southern Italy not long ago, Doyle was caught off .
The European Union Essay Words | 4 Pages The European Union was created in providing interregional trade barriers, a common external tariff against other countries, a Common Agricultural Policy and guarantees of free movement of labor and capital.
As of , the European Coal and Steel Community begins to unite European countries economically and politically in order to secure lasting peace. The six founders are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
Identification. The Romans used the name Italia to refer to the Italian peninsula. Additionally, Italy has been invaded and settled by many different peoples. Etruscans in Tuscany preceded the Romans and Umbria, while Greeks settled the south.