However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Read more about the origin of India here Biodiversity vs Human progress Main article:
On the basis of ground truthing by the official of FSI, main reasons for decrease of forest cover is shifting cultivation in all districts.
Degradation of forest causes ecological imbalance, rapid drying up of small water sources, and loss of productivity of land causing reduction in family income and enhancement of poverty in absence of any subsidiary income.
Loss of nutrients and top soil: With reduction in jhum cycle from 20—30 years to 2—3 years, the land under shifting cultivation looses its nutrients and the top soil.
With reduction in crop yield, the families start moving to other virgin areas. Now, a stage has come that it has already affected 2. So long as the jhum cycle has duration of 10 years or more this type of cultivation did Biodiversity profile of india pose any threat to the ecological stability and soils of the largely forested hill area.
While studying jhum ecology in Meghalaya, it was reported that water and nutrient losses in shifting-cultivation areas were far greater than in the virgin areas, and areas left for 50 years after jhuming. Thus, reduction in the cycles of jhuming, adversely affects the recovery of soil fertility, and the nutrient conservation by the ecosystem.
Repeated short-cycle jhuming has created forest-canopy gaps which are evident from the barren hills. Frequent shifting from one land to the other has affected the ecology of these regions. The area under natural forest has declined; the fragmentation of habitat, local disappearance of native species and invasion by exotic weeds and other plants are some of the other ecological consequences of shifting agriculture.
The area having jhum cycle of 5 and 10 years is more vulnerable to weed invasion compared to jhum cycle of 15 years.
The area with fifteen-year jhum cycle has more soil nutrients, larger number of species, and higher agronomic yield with ratio of energy output to input as Although jhuming has many benefits from livelihood point of view, but in long run it destroys the ecosystem balance because one inch soil formation in nature takes about years.
But several inches of soil are washed out each year due to jhuming. Heavy siltation of Brahmaputra River from its tributaries and frequent breaking of embankments are caused by heavy soil erosion from hills of North East India. Major adverse effect of shifting cultivation apart from soil and nutrient losses are rapid siltation of river beds causing floods, denudation of forests which hardly gets regeneration time because after 3 to 5 years they have to be burnt for another jhuming due to population pressure.
Previously this period was for 7 to 10 years.Demographic Profile Geophysical Features According to the census, Assam‘s million people account for % of the country‘s population with its population density being marginally higher than the average density of the country (Assam Human Development Report, ).
Biodiversity Profile of alphabetnyc.com - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Abstract. Tropical islands comprising small island developing states and small islands of continental countries located in the tropical region are very unique in terms of its biodiversity, resource endowments, climate and socio-economic profile.
Navdanya has been protecting biodiversity and cultural diversity with local communities of India. The Earth Journeys provide an opportunity to visit the Navdanya communities, participate in their culture and agriculture taste the local food diversity.
Information about the Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot was developed using our ecosystem profile and the book “Hotspots Revisited. A & van Ham, P. The Seven Sisters of India: Tribal Worlds between Tibet and Burma. USA: Prestal Publishers.
Biodiversity Observation and Data Sharing India. 1. About the National Programme & Contributors 2.
Premise: Landscape and Structure and functioning biodiversity loss in most regions of India •Soil Map with profile attributes Primary data sets 1. Field Data 2. Vegetation Map 3. Fragmentation Map.